Understanding Technical SEO

Technical SEO is all about making sure search engines can crawl, index, and render content on your website. There are several technical elements that influence whether the search engines can properly execute these tasks. All of these elements need to be built correctly for Technical SEO―especially when it comes to slow rendering websites―but I'll focus specifically on the five most effective. Here are those:

XML Sitemaps

XML Sitemap is an XML file that lists all the URLs of a website that you upload to Search Console to send URLs to Google and monitor their indexing—as it’s easy as that. 
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Hreflang Tag

The hreflang or rel= “alternate” hreflang= “x” relation attribute is an HTML meta feature that defines the website language and region. You will use the hreflang tag in one of the following places.
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HTTP Status Code

In one sentence, the HTTP Status Code is the code that the website server sends back to the user’s browser when the page is accessed. 
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HTTP/2

The HTTP/2 protocol was released in 2015 with the intention of developing a quicker and safer Internet, since there has been no radical revision since HTTP 1.1.
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Meta Description

The meta definition is a meta tag that is stored in the HTML file. It acts as a rundown of the content of the web page and is seen in the SERP snippets below the title of the page. 
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Meta Robots Tag

The meta robot tag is the tag that we add to certain pages in the <head> portion of the HTML. It is used to denote how search engine crawlers can behave as they enter a web page
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Page Speed

Web speed is the time it takes for a website to view all content on a page, also known as page loading time. 
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Redirect

A redirect is the HTTP status code assigned to the current/old page that informs Google to view the newer one instead.
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Robots.txt

Robots.txt is a file representing the regions of the website where search engine robots are prohibited from crawling.
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Schema

Schema.org is a dictionary of tags (also known as markups) that webmasters may apply to the HTML to make the website appear more appealing to SERPs (Search Engine Results Pages)
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URL

The URL specifies the location of a text or website for users and search engines. It owes its identity to the Universal Resource Locator acronym.
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AMP

AMP is a type of page created by Google and Twitter that provides the quickest navigation on the Internet.
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Site Migration

Site transformation is an operation that changes the site’s platform, design, UX, HTTPS, structure, content or venue.
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Protocol HTTPS

The HTTPS Protocol is used to secure sensitive data during online purchases such as online banking, filling in forms or online shopping.
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International SEO

When you discover the foreign audience, take a closer look at local online purchasing habits and cultural influences that can help you make choices that are better tailored to the real population characteristics.
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Mobile First Index

There’s currently a shiny new Googlebot on the internet, and it’s looking first and foremost at the mobile edition of whatever website it comes across – thus the idea of “mobile-first indexing
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Google Penguin

Google’s Pengiun is targeted at lowering the search engine rankings of pages that breach Google’s Webmaster Guidelines by using now-declared black-hat SEO tactics .
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Google Panda

This update was for the websites that have created comparatively low-quality content with the sole purpose of being at the top of Google’s rankings for common words and selling ads on these pages.
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Optimize Crawl Budget

Google is setting out a crawl budget for every website. The budget allotted dictates the amount of times Googlebot scrolls the website as it scans for indexed pages.
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Page Meta Tags

There are several forms of meta tags besides the title, such as meta definitions, robots, canonicals, social meta tags, etc.
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